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Scales of Transformation - Interdisciplinary analysis of the cemetery ‘Kudachurt 14’ deel 11
Representing both a barrier and a corridor between the Eurasian and Asian continents, the Caucasus has constituted the setting for various socio-economic transformations throughout prehistory. The transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age in the Northern Caucasus is a period characterised by a shift from pastoral lifeways in the steppe to sedentary lifestyles in the high mountains, and the change from hierarchical to egalitarian societies. In this context, this book provides basic scientific research on social inequality, demography, oral health, and diet of humans that lived between 2200-1650 BCE in the central North Caucasian foothills. Due to the outstanding preservation of its archaeological and human remains, the cemetery Kudachurt 14 represents a hitherto missing link for a transformative period in this region.Archaeologically, the heterogeneity of the burial remains appears as a melting pot of different cultural phenomena, but showing strong typological affiliation to the so-called North Caucasian culture of the high mountain area. Furthermore, biological and ritual evidence confirms often-stated gender concepts and expression of differences in social status. Individuals suffered from poor oral health due to the occupational use of their teeth and high caries prevalence occurred among both adolescents and adults. Together with information from C and N stable isotopes, the data provide evidence for early agricultural practices in a mixed subsistence economy. While social inequality is prominent in the burial context, it is not displayed in oral health and dietary trends. This indicates rather similar living conditions for individuals from different socio-ritual statuses.The presented doctoral research delivers the first comprehensive data collection and investigation that combines burial, osteological, palaeopathological, and stable isotope information, and achieves a connection between the living and the dead in this time and place.Contents:PART I: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH1. Introduction1.1. Environmental and archaeological background1.1.1. Topography and environment1.1.2. The North Caucasian Bronze Age: Cultures and chronology1.1.3. Climatic conditions1.2. State of the art1.2.1. Burial practices: Socio-ritual indicators1.2.2. Human Remains: Osteology and palaeopathology1.2.3. Stable isotope analyses: Palaeodietary reconstructions2. Questions of research and methodological approach2.1. The cemetery 'Kudachurt 14' (chapter 3)2.2. Burial practice: Social indicators (chapter 4)2.3. Human Remains: Demography and oral health (chapter 5)2.4. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes: Palaeodietary reconstruction (chapter 6)2.5. Interdisciplinary synthesis: Burial practice, human osteology and stable isotopes (chapter 7)2.6. Basic approach and terminology3. The cemetery of Kudachurt 143.1. Location and environmental aspect3.2. Excavation and subsequent work3.2.1. Excavation techniques and on-site documentation3.2.2. Findings: Inventory, preparation and current state3.3. Cemetery plan3.4. Findings and chronology3.4.1. Relative chronology and typological classification220.127.116.11. Kudachurt 14 and typological significance18.104.22.168. Comparison of sites and finds3.4.2. Radiocarbon dating and stratigraphy22.214.171.124. Radiocarbon dating126.96.36.199. Stratigraphic structures188.8.131.52. Radiocarbon dating and stratigraphic structures3.4.3. Summary: Chronology and typological classification3.5. Kudachurt 14 and the MBA-LBA transition in the Northern CaucasusPART II: DISCIPLINARY ANALYSES: BURIAL PRACTICE, HUMAN REMAINS AND ISOTOPES4. Burial practice: Social indicators4.1. Characteristics of burial practice4.1.1. Spatial distribution4.1.2. Elements of grave construction4.1.3. Inhumations and burial types4.1.4. Goods for the dead: Burial items4.1.5. Data quality groups4.2. Results 1: Basis of data and single characteristics4.2.1. Elements of grave construction184.108.40.206. Construction elements220.127.116.11. Construction elements and dimensions18.104.22.168. Dromos structures22.214.171.124. Spatial distribution126.96.36.199. Summary elements of grave construction4.2.2. Inhumation and burial types188.8.131.52. Skeletal in situ-preservation184.108.40.206. MNIC, MNIG and burial type220.127.116.11. Signs of re-access18.104.22.168. Body treatment22.214.171.124. Presence of ochre4.2.3. Burial items126.96.36.199. Cemetery and data quality188.8.131.52. Cemetery and burial item criteria184.108.40.206. Graves and burial item criteria220.127.116.11. Grave assemblages and burial item criteria18.104.22.168. Functional classes and spatial distribution22.214.171.124. Assemblage variation: CPI and CRI126.96.36.199. Evaluation: significance of CPI and CRI188.8.131.52. Assemblage compositions: Correspondence analyses184.108.40.206. Summary burial item analyses4.3. Results 2: Social proxies of burial practice4.3.1. Construction elements, burial types and MNIG4.3.2. Construction elements and burial item characteristics4.3.3. Burial item criteria: burial types and individuals220.127.116.11. Data basis and clearing18.104.22.168. Frequencies per burial type and individual4.3.4. Burial item criteria: Assemblage functional character and burial type4.3.5. Burial item criteria: Assemblage compositions and burial type4.3.6. Burial item criteria: Assemblage functional character and individuals22.214.171.124. Single burials126.96.36.199. Double burials188.8.131.52. Collective burials184.108.40.206. Bodily treatment220.127.116.11. Interim result: Individual equipment4.4. Chronological aspects4.5. Discussion and evaluation: Burial practice and social indicators4.5.1. Grave constructions: Proxies for effort or practicability?4.5.2. Regularities of bodily treatment?4.5.3. Burial item criteria: Cemetery4.5.4. Funeral equipment groups: Commonalities or inequalities?4.5.5. Social implications of burial practice4.6. Conclusions5. Human remains: Demography and oral health5.1. Functional data from human remains5.2. Significance of biological sex and age-at-death5.3. Dental pathology and oral health5.4. Investigative parameters and methods5.4.1. Anatomical terminology5.4.2. Preparatory work and recording approach5.4.3. Age-at-death5.4.4. Biological sex5.4.5. Categories of oral health18.104.22.168. Dental calculus22.214.171.124. Periodontal disease126.96.36.199. Periapical lesions188.8.131.52. Antemortem tooth loss184.108.40.206. Dental wear: Masticatory and extramasticatory traits220.127.116.11. Carious lesions18.104.22.168. Enamel hypoplasia5.5. Material: Graves, individuals and dentitions5.6. Results 1: Data basis, demography and categories of oral health5.6.1. Data basis: skeletal and dental preservation5.6.2. Demography: Age-at-death and biological sex22.214.171.124. Cemetery (IOC)126.96.36.199. Graves and spatial distribution (IOG)5.6.3. Categories of oral health188.8.131.52. Dental calculus184.108.40.206. Periodontal disease220.127.116.11. Periapical lesions18.104.22.168. Antemortem and perimortem tooth loss22.214.171.124. Dental wear: Masticatory and extramasticatory traits126.96.36.199. Interrelations of dental wear: Individual dentitions188.8.131.52. Carious lesions184.108.40.206. AMTL calibration: Caries and dental wear220.127.116.11. Extramasticatory traits: Occupational habits or hygienic measures?18.104.22.168. Enamel hypoplasia5.6.4. Summary oral health: Results 15.7. Results 2: Statuses of oral health and burial contexts5.7.1. Correlation of oral health categories: Inter-individual comparison5.7.2. Statuses of oral health, burial contexts and spatial distribution5.8. Chronological aspects5.9. Discussion and evaluation: Demography and oral health5.9.1. Demographic and palaeopathological implications5.9.2. Dietary implications5.9.3. Occupational habits5.9.4. Social implications6. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes: Palaeodietary reconstruction6.1. Principles of stable isotope analyses6.1.1. Basic concept and terminology6.1.2. Stable C and N isotopes from bone collagen6.1.3. Stable C and N isotopes in palaeodietary reconstructions22.214.171.124. Food webs126.96.36.199. δ13C188.8.131.52. δ15N6.2. Recent research on subsistence and diet in the North Caucasian Bronze Age6.3. The significance of Kudachurt 146.4. Working hypotheses6.5. Material and methods6.5.1. Sample selection6.5.2. Methods6.6. Results6.6.1. Collagen quality6.6.2. Animal values6.6.3. Human values6.6.4. Animal and human values6.7. Discussion and evaluation6.8. Chronological aspects6.9. Context of current C and N isotope research in the North Caucasian Bronze Age6.10. Conclusion: Trends and limits of dietary reconstructions at Kudachurt 14PART III: INTERDISCIPLINAR SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSION7. Interdisciplinary synthesis: Burial practice, human remains, and stable isotopes7.1. Cemetery: Age, sex and funeral equipment7.2. Individual contexts: Burial practice, social inequality and demography7.3. Grave contexts: Social inequality, demography, oral health and diet8. Conclusions8.1. Research questions and answers8.1.1. The cemetery Kudachurt 14 (chapter 3)8.1.2. Burial practice: Social indicators (chapter 4)8.1.3. Human Remains: Demography and oral health (chapter 5)8.1.4. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes: Palaeodietary reconstruction (chapter 6)8.1.5. Interdisciplinary synthesis: Burial practice, human osteology and stable isotopes (chapter 7)8.2. Evaluation and research prospects9. Short summary10. Kurzzusammenfassung11. краткая информация12. References13. Tables, figures and abbreviations13.1. List of tables13.2. List of figures and copyrights13.3. AbbreviationsPART IV: ONLINE DATA: CATALOGUE AND APPENDIX14. Appendix14.1. Isotope tables14.1. Recording schemes15. Grave catalogue16. Item plate catalogue17. Database
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