KADOC-Studies on Religion, Culture and Society - Cardinal Mercier in the First World War deel 23

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9789462701649
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Church leaders and their contrasting opinions in the face of the Great War

Cardinal Désiré-Joseph Mercier, Archbishop of Malines, was the incarnation of the Belgian resistance against the German occupation during the First World War. With his famous pastoral letter of Christmas 1914 ‘Patriotisme et Endurance’ he reached a wide audience, and gained international influence and respect. Mercier’s distinct patriotic stance clearly determined his views of national politics, especially of the 'Flemish question', and his conflict with the German occupier made him a hero of the Allies. The Germans did not always know how to handle this influential man of the Church. Pope Benedict XV did not always approve of the course of action adopted by the Belgian prelate. Whereas Mercier justified the war effort as a just cause in view of the restoration of Belgium's independence, the Pope feared that "this useless massacre" meant nothing but the "suicide of civilized Europe”. Through a critical analysis of the policies of Cardinal Mercier and Pope Benedict XV, this book sheds revealing light on the contrasting positions of Church leaders in the face of the Great War.

Samenvatting


Cardinal Désiré-Joseph Mercier, Archbishop of Malines, was the incarnation of the Belgian resistance against the German occupation during the First World War. With his famous pastoral letter of Christmas 1914 ‘Patriotisme et Endurance’ he reached a wide audience, and gained international influence and respect. Mercier’s distinct patriotic stance clearly determined his views of national politics, especially of the 'Flemish question', and his conflict with the German occupier made him a hero of the Allies. The Germans did not always know how to handle this influential man of the Church. Pope Benedict XV did not always approve of the course of action adopted by the Belgian prelate. Whereas Mercier justified the war effort as a just cause in view of the restoration of Belgium's independence, the Pope feared that "this useless massacre" meant nothing but the "suicide of civilized Europe”. Through a critical analysis of the policies of Cardinal Mercier and Pope Benedict XV, this book sheds revealing light on the contrasting positions of Church leaders in the face of the Great War.

Inhoudsopgave


Introduction Belgium and the German Invasion of 1914 Belgium, a laboratory for Catholics in a liberal democracy Catholic Party between conservatives and social Catholicism Cardinal Mercier, Belgium’s primate The German invasion A Protestant-Catholic Holy War? The 1914 conclave Pope Benedict XV and the Belgian dilemma Mercier’s Pastoral Letter “Patriotism and Endurance” Cardinal Mercier and the fall of Antwerp The Cardinal’s choice is maturing Patriotism and Endurance Alternatives were possible In Conflict with the Occupier The German reaction Meanwhile in the Vatican The nation’s hero Mercier and Benedict XV A new crisis Banishment to Rome? Letter to the bishops of Germany and Austria Meeting with the pope Triumph in Rome Arm wrestling about the return “At our return from Rome” Arrests, Deportations, and State Looting Arrests and executions Dismantling of a nation Resistance against the deportations Towards a public papal condemnation? Vatican pressure The Flemish Question Flamenpolitik A Flemish university in Ghent The Belgian administration split Roman questions regarding Mercier’s stance Roman Realpolitik Holy War or Holy Peace A just war? First search for a negotiated solution Towards a compromise peace in 1916? Pope Benedict’s peace proposal “The bitterest hour of our life” The end of the war The Allies’ Hero of a Diminished Belgium Towards a solution for the Roman question? Belgium after the armistice Triumphal tour of the United States and Canada Conclusion Annex: Patriotism and Endurance – Christmas 1914 Bibliography Index of Persons Colophon

Biografie


Jan De Volder is a Belgian historian. Currently, he occupies the Cusanus Chair ‘Religion, Conflict and Peace’ of the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies of the University of Louvain (KU Leuven). He has a special interest in church and religion during World Wars I and II.

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9789462701649
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ISBN9789462701649
AuteurJan De Volder
PublisherUniversitaire Pers Leuven
TaalEngels
Publicatiejaar2018
UitvoeringPaperback
Aantal bladzijdes264
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